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By Bernhard Sonnleitner

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G. [201]. 3 Calorimetric Sensors This type of biosensor exploits the fact that enzymatic reactions are exothermic (5–100 kJ mol –1 ). The biogenic heat can be detected by thermistors or temperature-sensitive semiconductor devices. A technical realization can be performed either by immobilizing enzymes on particles in a column around the heat-sensing device or by direct attachment of the immobilized enzyme to the temperature transducer. Applications to measure biotechnologically relevant substances have been: ATP, glucose, lactate, triglycerides, cellobiose, ethanol, galactose, lactose, sucrose, penicillin and others [30, 120, 142, 337].

The principles, sampling systems, control of the measuring device and application of MS for bioprocesses have been summarized by Heinzle [157, 158] and Heinzle and Reuss [162]. 3 ¥1000 mm or longer) or a direct membrane inlet, for example, silicon or Teflon [72, 412]. Electron impact ionization with high energy (approx. 70 eV) causes (undesired) extensive fragmentation but is commonly applied. Mass separation can be obtained either by quadrupole or magnetic instruments and the detection should be performed by (fast and sensitive) secondary electron multipliers rather than (slower and less sensitive) Faraday cups (Fig.

Both liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) have been applied in numerous cases to off-line analyses of biotechnological samples but the on-line application has only recently been developed. The scope of chromatographic methods is the separation of the individual constituents of mixtures as they pass through columns filled with suitable stationary phases (Fig. 20). The Fig. 20. Schematic design of linking a chromatograph on-line to bioprocesses. In principle, the design is almost identical to an FIA system.

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