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Toole, J. J. (1992). Selection of single-stranded DNA molecules that bind and inhibit human thrombin. Nature 355, 564–566. , Toulm´e, J-J. (1999). DNA aptamers selected against the HIV-1 TAR RNA element form RNA/DNA kissing complexes. J Biol Chem 274, 12730–12737. Boomer, R. , Lewis, S. , Healy, J. , McCauley, T. G. (2005). Conjugation to polyethylene glycol polymer promotes aptamer biodistribution to healthy and inflamed tissues. Oligonucleotides 15, 183–195. Brody, E. , Gold, L. (2000). Aptamers as therapeutic and diagnostic agents.

Hobbs, J. B. (2000). Extending the lifetime of anticoagulant oligodeoxynucleotide aptamers in blood. Nucl Med Biol 27, 289–297. Drolet, D. , Romig, T. S. (1996). An enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay. Nat Biotechnol 14, 1021–1025. , Toulm´e, J-J. (1999). In vitro selection identifies key determinants for loop-loop interactions: RNA aptamers selective for the TAR RNA element of HIV-1. RNA 5, 1605–1614. , Toulm´e, J-J. (2000). Is a closing “GA pair” a rule for stable loop-loop RNA complexes? J Biol Chem 275, 21287–21294.

1996). Conversely, the aptamer could be associated with a fluorophore whose emission properties will change upon binding to its ligand. The second possibility does not require the synthesis of a target analog that shows binding properties similar to that of the unmodified molecule and is therefore easier to use in real time. Moreover, conjugation of the aptamer to a fluorophore at either the 5 or 3 end is trivial. The binding to the analyte can be monitored by changes in the evanescent wave-induced fluorescence anisotropy as described in the pioneering work by Potyrailo et al.

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